The masses of two-gluon glueballs are studied with a semirelativistic potential model whose interaction is a scalar linear confinement supplemented by a one-gluon exchange mechanism. The gluon is massless but the leading corrections of the dominant part of the Hamiltonian are expressed in terms of a state dependent constituent gluon mass. The Hamiltonian depends only on 3 parameters: the strong coupling constant, the string tension, and a gluon size which removes all singularities in the leading corrections of the potential. Accurate numerical calculations are performed with a Lagrange mesh method. The masses predicted are in rather good agreement with lattice results and with some experimental glueball candidates.
Brief review of the status of the glueball spectrum in the deformed conifold background. Talk based on work done with R. Hernandez and X. Amador.
We argue that a systems of tightly knotted, linked, or braided flux tubes will have a universal mass-energy spectrum, since the length of fixed radius flux tubes depend only on the topology of the configuration. We motivate the discussion with plasma physics examples, then concentrate on the model of glueballs as knotted QCD flux tubes. Other applications will also be discussed.
We calculate the mass of the lowest lying spin two glueball in N=1 super Yang-Mills from the dual Klebanov-Strassler background. We show that the Regge trajectory obtained is linear; the 0++, 1-- and 2++ states lie on a line of slope 0.23 -measured in units of the conifold deformation. We also compare mass ratios with lattice data and find agreement within one standard deviation.
We analyze several scenarios for a scalar glueball using arguments based on sum rules, spectral decomposition, the $\frac{1}{N_c}$ approximation, the scales of the strong interaction and the topology of the flux tubes. The most appealing scenario on which we elaborate is one with a light glueball.
A scalar model of the glueball is offered. The model is based on the nonperturbative calculation of 2 and 4-points Green's functions. Approximately they can be expressed via a scalar field. On the basis of the SU(3) Yang-Mills Lagrangian an effective Lagrangian for the scalar field is derived. The corresponding field equations are solved for the spherically symmetric case. The obtained solution is interpreted as a bubble of the SU(3) quantized gauge field.
The deconfinement transition in 3+1 dimensional gluodynamics is studied using the gauge invariant variational method introduced by Kogan and Kovner a few years ago. We identify a first order phase transition, characterized by a discontinuous jump in the entropy of the system, resulting in a transparent picture of the mechanism of deconfinement. The calculation of the ratio of the transition temperature to the mass of the lightest glueball in the model yields 0.18 in complete agreement with the lattice estimate.
The $eta_L(1410)$ component of the $\eta(1440)$ pseudoscalar has strong affinity for glue. But its mass is incompatible with lattice simulations that predict a much higher value for the $0^{-+}$ glueball. As a consequence it has been suggested that $\eta_L(1410)$ could signal physics beyond the Standard Model. Here we argue that if glueballs are closed gluonic fluxtubes then $\eta_L(1410)$ is a prime candidate for the $0^{-+}$ glueball. Furthermore, in the absence of parity violating terms its mass should be degenerate with that of the $0^{++}$ glueball. We also suggest that the decay properties of such glueballs could be employed as probes for extra dimensions.
The complete low-lying positive charge conjugation glueball spectrum is obtained from QCD. The formalism relies on the construction of an efficient quasiparticle gluon basis for Hamiltonian QCD in Coulomb gauge. The resulting rapidly convergent Fock space expansion is exploited to derive quenched low-lying glueball masses with no free parameters which are in remarkable agreement with lattice gauge theory.
Gaussian sum-rules, which are related to a two-parameter Gaussian-weighted integral of a hadronic spectral function, are able to examine the possibility that more than one resonance makes a significant contribution to the spectral function. The Gaussian sum-rules, including instanton effects, for scalar gluonic and non-strange scalar quark currents clearly indicate a distribution of the resonance strength in their respective spectral functions. Furthermore, analysis of a two narrow resonance model leads to excellent agreement between theory and phenomenology in both channels. The scalar quark and gluonic sum-rules are remarkably consistent in their prediction of masses of approximately 1.0 GeV and 1.4 GeV within this model. Such a similarity would be expected from hadronic states which are mixtures of gluonium and quark mesons.
We calculate the mass spectrum and the decay widths of glueballs in the flux tube model. The glueball is assumed to be a closed flux tube. The breathing motion and the rotational motion are investigated using the WKB approximation. The calculated spectra is consistent with those by lattice QCD. The decay widths are also computed using Schwinger mechanism and it is shown that they have rather large values.
Instanton effects and three-loop perturbative contributions are incorporated into QCD sum-rule analyses of pseudoscalar ($J^{PC}=0^{-+}$) gluonium. Gaussian sum-rules are shown to be superior to Laplace sum-rules in optimized predictions for pseudoscalar gluonium states in the presence of instanton contributions. The Gaussian sum-rule analysis yields a pseudoscalar mass of $(2.65\pm 0.33) GeV$ and width bounded by $\Gamma<530 MeV$. The Laplace sum-rules provide corroborating evidence in support of the $\approx 2.7 GeV$ mass scale.
Recently Buniy and Kephart made an astonishing empirical observation, which anyone can reproduce at home. Measure the {\it lengths} of closed knots tied from ordinary rope. The ``double do-nut'', and the beautiful trefoil knot are examples. Tie the knots tightly, and glue or splice the tails into a seamless unity. Compare two knots with corresponding members of the mysterious particle states known as ``glueball'' candidates in the literature. Propose that the microscopic glueball mass ought to be proportional to the macroscopic mass of the corresponding knot. Fit two parameters, then {\it predict} 12 of 12 remaining glueball masses with extraordinary accuracy, knot by knot. Here we relate these observations to the fundamental gauge theory of gluons, by recognizing a hidden gauge symmetry bent into the knots. As a result the existence and importance of a gluon mass parameter is clarified. Paradoxically forbidden by the usual framework, the gluon mass cannot be expressed in the usual coordinates, but has a natural meaning in the geometry of knots.
It has been shown by Polchinski and Strassler that the scaling of high energy QCD scattering amplitudes can be obtained from string theory. They considered an AdS slice as an approximation for the dual space of a confining gauge theory. Here we use this approximation to estimate in a very simple way the ratios of scalar glueball masses imposing Dirichlet boundary conditions on the string dilaton field. These ratios are in good agreement with the results in the literature. We also find that they do not depend on the size of the slice.
Gaussian sum-rules relate a QCD prediction to a two-parameter Gaussian-weighted integral of a hadronic spectral function, providing a clear conceptual connection to quark-hadron duality. In contrast to Laplace sum-rules, the Gaussian sum-rules exhibit enhanced sensitivity to excited states of the hadronic spectral function. The formulation of Gaussian sum-rules and associated analysis techniques for extracting hadronic properties from the sum-rules are reviewed and applied to scalar gluonium. With the inclusion of instanton effects, the Gaussian sum-rule analysis results in a consistent scenario where the gluonic resonance strength is spread over a broad energy range below 1.6 GeV, and indicates the presence of gluonium content in more than one hadronic state.
We model the observed glueball mass spectrum in terms of energies for knotted and linked QCD flux tubes. The data is fit well with one parameter. We predict additional glueball masses.
Using a simple relativistic QFT model of scalar fields we demonstrate that the analytic confinement (propagator is an entire function in the complex $p^2$--plane) and the weak coupling constant lead to the Regge behaviour of the two-particle bound states. In QCD we assume that the gluon vacuum is realized by the self-dual homogeneous classical field which is the solution of the Yang-Mills equations. This assumption leads to analytical confinement of quarks and gluons. We extract the colorless $0^{++}$ two-gluon state from the QCD generating functional in the one-gluon exchange approximation. The mass of this bound state is defined by the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The glueball mass is $1765~{\rm MeV}$ for $\alpha_s=0.33$ if the gluon condensate is $<(\alpha_s/\pi) G G >=0.012~{\rm GeV}^4$.
We have recently found a one to one holographic mapping between QCD glueballs and dilaton states in AdS space. This result leads to the appropriate scaling of high energy glueball scattering amplitudes from low energy string theory. Here we show that this mapping also gives a simple expression for the ratio of scalar glueball masses.
The spectrum of two-gluon glueballs below 3 GeV is investigated in a potential model with dynamical gluon mass using variational method. The short distance potential is approximated by one-gluon exchange, while the long distance part is taken as a breakable string. The mass and size of the radial as well as orbital excitations up to principle quantum number n=3 are evaluated. The predicted mass ratios are compared with experimental and lattice results.
I review the calculation of the glueball spectrum in non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (in 3 and 4 dimensions) using the conjectured duality between supergravity and large N gauge theories. The glueball masses are obtained by solving the supergravity wave equations in a black hole geometry. The masses obtained this way are in unexpectedly good agreement with the available lattice data, and are much better than strong-coupling expansion results. I also show how to use a modified version of the duality to calculate the glueball mass spectrum with some of the Kaluza-Klein states of the supergravity theory decoupled from the spectrum.
The glueball spectrum within the Hamiltonian formulation of lattice gauge theory (without fermions) is calculated for the gauge group SU(2) and for two spatial dimensions. The Hilbert space of gauge-invariant functions of the gauge field is generated by its parallel-transporters on closed paths along the links of the spatial lattice. The coupled cluster method is used to determine the spectrum of the Kogut-Susskind Hamiltonian in a truncated basis. The quality of the description is studied by computing results from various truncations, lattice regularisations and with an improved Hamiltonian. We find consistency for the mass ratio predictions within a scaling region where we obtain good agreement with standard lattice Monte Carlo results.
The effective QCD Hamiltonian is constructed with the help of the background perturbation theory, and relativistic Feynman--Schwinger path integrals for Green's functions. The resulting spectrum displays mass gaps of the order of one GeV, when additional valence gluon is added to the bound state. Mixing between meson, hybrid, and glueball states is defined in two ways: through generalized Green's functions and via modified Feynman diagram technic giving similar answers. Results for mixing matrix elements are numerically not large (around 0.1 GeV) and agree with earlier analytic estimates and lattice simulations.
We include instanton effects in QCD sum rules for coupled scalar glueballs and mesons. We find a light glueball/sigma as in earlier studies without instantons, but in a lattice-type pure instanton model the light glueball/sigma is not found. In the 1-2 Gev region we now find that lightest I=0 meson, in the region of the f$_o$(1370), has no direct glueball mixing, with the instanton loop replacing the glueball component. The lightest scalar mainly glueball in the region of the f$_o$(1500) is sensitive to the choice of nonperturbative gluonic parameters.
We study the spectrum of massive excitations in three-dimensional models belonging to the Ising universality class. By solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation for 3D $\phi^4$ theory in the broken symmetry phase we show that recently found non-perturbative states can be interpreted as bound states of the fundamental excitation. We show that duality predicts an exact correspondence between the spectra of the Ising model in the broken symmetry phase and of the Z(2) gauge theory in the confining phase. The interpretation of the glueball states of the gauge theory as bound states of the dual spin system allows us to explain the qualitative features of the glueball spectrum, in particular, its peculiar angular momentum dependence.
We investigate the impact of instantons on scalar glueball properties in a largely model-independent analytical approach based on the instanton-improved operator product expansion (IOPE) of the $0^{++}$ glueball correlator. The instanton contributions turn out to be dominant, to substantially improve the consistency of the correponding QCD sum rules, and to increase the glueball residue about fivefold.
We construct the effective Lagrangian describing the light glueballs associated with the unbroken and confining SU(2) color subgroup for the 2 flavor superconductive phase of QCD. This Lagrangian constitutes a key ingredient for understanding the non perturbative physics of 2 flavor color superconductivity. We estimate the two photon decay process of the light glueballs using the saturation of the electromagnetic trace anomaly at the effective Lagrangian level. The present results are particularly relevant to our model of Gamma Ray Bursts based on color superconductivity in Quark Stars (R. Ouyed and F. Sannino astro-ph/0103022).
Ground and first radially excited scalar isoscalar meson states and a scalar glueball are described in a nonlocal U(3)xU(3) quark model. The glueball is introduced into the effective meson Lagrangian by means of the dilaton model on the base of the scale invariance of the meson Lagrangian. The scale invariance breaking by current quark masses and gluon anomalies is taken into account. The glueball anomalies turn out to be important for the description of the glueball-quarkonia mixing. The masses of five scalar isoscalar meson states and their strong decay widths are calculated. The state f_0(1500) is shown to be composed mostly of the scalar glueball.
In a model with dynamical gluon mass, we investigate the bound states of two and three gluons via a Schr\"odinger equation. The short distance potential is approximated by one-gluon-exchange while the long distance part is assumed to be of a breakable string. We estimate the masses and in particular the {\it sizes} of low-lying bound states with no orbital angular momentum. By considering quantum-mechanical smearing of the gluon fields and normalizing to lattice results on $M_{0^{++}}$ and $M_{2^{++}}$, we find that the $0^{++}$ glueball is rather small in size compared with the others. The fitted gluon mass is of order 600 to 700 MeV, which is reasonable. The 3-gluon glueballs $0^{-+}$, $1^{--}$ and $3^{--}$ states are nearly degenerate, and their mass ratio with $2^{++}$ is largely independent of all parameters and consistent with lattice calculations. We estimate the mass of $1^{--}$ glueball to be $3.1-3.7$ GeV, which is close to the mass of $J/\psi$ and $\psi^\prime$.
The spectrum of glueballs in 2+1 dimensions is calculated within an extended class of Isgur-Paton flux tube models and is compared to lattice calculations of the low-lying SU(N) glueball mass spectra. Our modifications of the model include a string curvature term and different ways of dealing with the flux tube width. We find that the generic model is remarkably successful at reproducing the positive charge conjugation, C=+, sector of the spectrum. The only large (and robust) discrepancy involves the 0-+ state. This raises the interesting possibility that the lattice spin identification is mistaken and that this state is in fact 4-+. In addition, the Isgur-Paton model does not incorporate any mechanism for splitting C=+ from C=- (in contrast to the case in 3+1 dimensions), while the `observed' spectrum shows a substantial splitting. We explore several modifications of the model in an attempt to incorporate this physics in a natural way. At the qualitative level we find that this constrains our choice to a picture in which the C=+/- splitting is driven by mixing with new states built on closed loops of adjoint flux. However a detailed numerical comparison suggests that a model incorporating an additional direct mixing between loops of opposite orientation is likely to work better; and that, in any case, a non-zero curvature term will be required. We also point out that a characteristic of any string model of glueballs is that the SU(N=infinity) mass spectrum will consist of multiple towers of states that are scaled up copies of each other. To test this will require a lattice mass spectrum that extends to somewhat larger masses than currently available.
The spectrum of glueballs in 2+1 dimensions is calculated within an extended class of Isgur-Paton flux tube models and is compared to lattice calculations of the low-lying SU(N) glueball mass spectra. Our modifications of the model include a string curvature term and different ways of dealing with the flux tube width. We find that the generic model is remarkably successful at reproducing the positive charge conjugation, C=+, sector of the spectrum. The only large (and robust) discrepancy involves the 0-+ state. This raises the interesting possibility that the lattice spin identification is mistaken and that this state is in fact 4-+. In addition, the Isgur-Paton model does not incorporate any mechanism for splitting C=+ from C=- (in contrast to the case in 3+1 dimensions), while the `observed' spectrum shows a substantial splitting. We explore several modifications of the model in an attempt to incorporate this physics in a natural way. At the qualitative level we find that this constrains our choice to a picture in which the C=+/- splitting is driven by mixing with new states built on closed loops of adjoint flux. However a detailed numerical comparison suggests that a model incorporating an additional direct mixing between loops of opposite orientation is likely to work better; and that, in any case, a non-zero curvature term will be required. We also point out that a characteristic of any string model of glueballs is that the SU(N=infinity) mass spectrum will consist of multiple towers of states that are scaled up copies of each other. To test this will require a lattice mass spectrum that extends to somewhat larger masses than currently available.
An effective meson Lagrangian including a scalar glueball is constructed on the base of U(3)xU(3) chiral symmetry. The glueball is introduced into the meson Lagrangian, using the principle of scale invariance of an effective Lagrangian and the dilaton model. The singlet-octet mixing of scalar meson states is described by means of the 't Hooft interaction. The contribution of the scalar and pseudoscalar anomalies into the breaking of scale invariance is taken into account. The mixing of quarkonia with the glueball is described. The mass spectrum of scalar mesons and the glueball and their strong decay widths are calculated. From comparing the obtained results with experimental data it follows that f_0(1500) is rather a glueball; whereas f_0(1710) is a quarkonium. This accords with the results obtained in our previous works where radially-excited scalar meson states were described.
Although marginally more complicated than the traditional Laplace sum-rules, Gaussian sum-rules do offer some clear advantages over the former: among them a relative insensitivity to the effects of resonance width and the ability to extract information concerning excited as well as ground state resonances. Gaussian sum-rule analysis techniques are applied to the problematic scalar glueball channel to determine masses and couplings of low-lying scalar glueball states. A key feature of our analysis is the inclusion of instanton contributions to the scalar gluonic correlation function. We find that predictions stemming from the leading order sum-rule (which contains a large scale-independent contribution from the low energy theorem) are unreliable because of their instability under QCD uncertainties. Employing the next-to-leading order sum-rule, however, yields stable predictions which provide outstanding agreement between theory and a two resonance phenomenological model. The results of this double resonance analysis indicate that the lightest state is weakly coupled to the gluonic current compared with the heavier state. Including QCD uncertainties, we find that the (dominantly coupled) heavier state has a mass of $(1.4\pm 0.2) \unit{GeV}$ and the mass difference between the two states is $(0.42\pm 0.03) \unit{GeV}.$ These results may have implications concerning the interpretation of the $f_0(980)$ and $f_0(1500)$.
Using a simple relativistic QFT model of scalar fields we demonstrate that the analytic confinement (propagator is an entire function in the complex p^2-plane) and the weak coupling constant lead to the Regge behaviour of the two-particle bound states. In QCD we assume that the gluon vacuum is realized by the selfdual homogeneous classical field which is the solution of the Yang-Mills equations. This assumption leads to analytical confinement of quarks and gluons. We extract the colorless 0(++) two-glouon state from the QCD generating functional in the one-gluon exchange approximation. The mass of this bound state is defined by the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The glueball mass varies in the region 1470{Mev} - 1600{Mev} for QCD coupling constant in the region 0.2 - 0.5 if the gluon condensate is 0.012 Gev^4.
The problem of glueball mass spectra using the relativistic Dirac equation is studied. Also the Breit-Fermi approach used to obtaining hyperfine splitting in glueballs. Our approach is based on the assumption, that the nature and the forces between two gluons are the short-range. We were to calculate the glueball masses with used screened potential.
Ground-state scalar isoscalar mesons and a scalar glueball are described in a U(3)xU(3) chiral quark model of the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) type with 't Hooft interaction. The latter interaction produces singlet-octet mixing in the scalar and pseudoscalar sectors. The glueball is introduced into the effective meson Lagrangian as a dilaton on the base of scale invariance. The mixing of the glueball with scalar isoscalar quarkonia and amplitudes of their decays into two pseudoscalar mesons are shown to be proportional to current quark masses, vanishing in the chiral limit. Mass spectra of the scalar mesons and the glueball and their main modes of strong decay are described.
It is shown that the eigenstates of the quantized simplest closed (elliptic) Nambu -- Goto string, called glueballs, have quantum numbers I^Gj^{PC}=0^+j^{++}. Lightest glueballs have spins j=0,1 and 2 and the same mass 1500 +/- 20 MeV. They correspond to f_0(1500), f_1(1510) and f_2(1565)- mesons. Next glueballs have j=0,1,2,3,4 and the same mass 2610 +/- 20 MeV. The slope of the glueball Regge trajectories is twice as small as for q\bar q-mesons. The intersept of the leading glueball trajectory - the pomeron Regge trajectory - is 1.07 +/- 0.03
Direct instanton contributions to the operator product expansion (OPE) of the scalar glueball correlator are found to dominate over those from perturbative fluctuations and soft vacuum fields. Sum rules built on the instanton-improved OPE show a high degree of stability and consistency with the low-energy theorem for the zero-momentum correlator. The predictions for the glueball mass (m_{G}=1.53 \pm 0.2 GeV) and coupling are found to scale as powers of the average instanton size and density.
We briefly review the approach for strong coupling calculation of glueball masses based on the duality between supergravity and Yang-Mills theory. Earlier work is extended to non-zero spin. Fluctuations in the gravitational metric lead to the $2^{++}$ tensor glueball state on the leading Pomeron trajectory with a mass relation: $m(0^{++}) < m(2^{++}) $. In particular, for $QCD_4$, a strong coupling expansion for the Pomeron intercept is obtained.
We present the analysis of the complete glueball spectrum for the $AdS^7$ black hole supergravity dual of $QCD_4$ in strong coupling limit: $g^2 N \to \infty$. The bosonic fields in the supergravity multiplet lead to 6 independent wave equations contributing to glueball states with $J^{PC} = 2^{++},1^{+-}, 1^{--}$, $0^{++}$ and $0^{-+}$. We study the spectral splitting and degeneracy patterns for both $QCD_4$ and $QCD_3$. Despite the expected limitations of a leading order strong coupling approximation, the pattern of spins, parities and mass inequalities bare a striking resemblance to the known $QCD_4$ glueball spectrum as determined by lattice simulations at weak coupling.
Spectrum of gluons in the adjoint source field is computed analytically using the QCD string Hamiltonian, containing only one parameter -- string tension, fixed by meson and glueball spectrum. Spin splitting is shown to be small. A good agreement is observed with spacially generated gluelump states measured on the lattice. Important role of gluelumps defining the behaviour of field-strength correlators is stressed and correspondence with earlier computations of the latter is established.
Using a nonperturbative method based on asymptotic behaviour of Wilson loops we calculate masses of glueballs and corresponding Regge-trajectories. The method contains no fitting parameters and the mass scale is fixed by the meson Regge slope. Theoretical predictions for lowest glueball states are in a perfect agreement with lattice results. The leading glueball trajectory and its relation to the Pomeron is discussed in details. Important role of mixing between glueball and q\bar q trajectories is emphasized.
The spin of a glueball is usually taken as coming from the spin (and possibly the orbital angular momentum) of its constituent gluons. In light of the difficulties in accounting for the spin of the nucleon from its constituent quarks, the spin of the glueballs is reexamined. The starting point is the fundamental QCD field angular momentum operator written in terms of the chromoelectric and chromomagnetic fields. First, we look at the restrictions placed on the structure of the glueballs from the requirement that the QCD field angular momentum operator should satisfy the standard commutation relationships. This can be compared to the electromagnetic charge/monopole system, where the quantization of the field angular momentum places restrictions (i.e. the Dirac condition) on the system. Second, we look at the expectation value of this operator under some simplifying assumptions.
A strong coupling calculation of glueball masses based on the duality between supergravity and Yang-Mills theory is presented. Earlier work is extended to non-zero spin. Fluctuations in the gravitational metric lead to the 2^{++} state on the leading Pomeron trajectory with a mass relation: m(0^{++}) < m(2^{++}) < m(1^{-+}). Contrary to expectation, the mass of our new 0^{++} state (m^2=5.4573) associated with the graviton is smaller than the mass of the ${\tilde 0}^{++}$ state (m^2=11.588) from the dilaton, which in fact is exactly degenerate with the tensor 2^{++}.
Using a nonperturbative method based on asymptotic behaviour of Wilson loops we calculate masses of glueballs and corresponding Regge-trajectories. The only input is string tension fixed by meson Regge slope, while perturbative contributions to spin splittings are defined by standard alpha_s values. The masses of lowest glueball states are in a perfect agreement with lattice results. The leading glueball trajectory which is associated with Pomeron is discussed in details and its mixing with f and f' trajectories is taken into account.
Nonperturbative QCD approach is systematically derived starting from the QCD Lagrangian. Treating spin effects as a perturbation, one obtains the universal effective Hamiltonian describing mesons, hybrids and glueballs. Constituent mass of quark and gluon is calculated via string tension. The resulting spectrum of mesons, hybrids and glueballs obtained is in good overall agreement with lattice data and experiment.
We discuss the ``spectroscopy'' of gluonic states in systems with two space dimensions, using simple models to mimic the results of lattice gauge theory computations. We first discuss the quantum numbers of these systems, including charge conjugation. Two types of systems are discussed in detail: ``gluelumps'' which have a heavy adjoint color charge at the origin and glueballs which are composed entirely of glue. Both systems are discussed using the bag model and the flux tube model. For glueballs the model spectra are compared with the results of Teper. Both models capture many features of the numerical results.
Descriptions of hadrons and glueballs can be constructed using strings to preserve gauge invariance. We show how this string dependence may be removed to all orders in perturbation theory.
The discrete spectrum of fluctuations of the metric about an $AdS^5$ black hole background are found. These modes are the strong coupling limit of so called glueball states in a dual 3-d Yang-Mills theory with quantum numbers $J^{PC} = 2^{++}, 1^{-+}, 0^{++}$. For the ground state modes, we find the mass relation: $m(0^{++}) < m(2^{++}) < m(1^{-+})$. Contrary to expectation, the mass of our new $0^{++}$ state ($m^2=5.4573$) associated with the graviton is smaller than the mass of the $0^{++}$ state ($m^2=11.588$) from the dilaton. In fact the dilatonic excitations are exactly degenerate with our tensor $2^{++}$ states. We find that variational methods gives remarkably accurate mass estimates for all three low-lying levels while a WKB treatment describes the higher modes well.
We determine the spectrum of graviton excitations in the background geometry of the AdS soliton in p+2 dimensions. Via the AdS/CFT correspondence this corresponds to determining the spectrum of spin two excitations in the dual effective p-dimensional field theories For the cases of D3- and M5-branes these are the spin two glueballs of QCD_3 and QCD_4 respectively. For all values of p we find an exact degeneracy of the spectra of these tensor states and certain scalar excitations. Our results also extend the perturbative proof of a positive energy conjecture for asymptotically locally AdS spacetimes (originally proposed for p=3) to an arbritrary number of dimensions.
We explore the ordering of the lowest levels in a simple bag model of the ``gluelump'' of Michael and also discuss, again within the context of the bag model, the related problem of hybrid potentials in the limit of very small spacing between quark and anti-quark sources.
We review the calculation of the spectrum of glueball masses in non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory using the conjectured duality between supergravity and large N gauge theories. The glueball masses are obtained by solving the supergravity wave equations in a black hole geometry. The glueball masses found this way are in unexpected agreement with the available lattice data. We also show how to use a modified version of the duality based on rotating branes to calculate the glueball mass spectrum with some of the Kaluza-Klein states of the supergravity theory decoupled from the spectrum.
An intuitive approach to the glueball using the flux-tube ring solution in the dual Ginzburg-Landau theory is presented. The description of the flux-tube ring as the relativistic closed string with the effective string tension enables us to write the hamiltonian of the flux-tube ring using the Nambu-Goto action. Analyzing the Schr\"odinger equation, we discuss the mass spectrum and the wave function of the glueball. The lowest glueball state is found to have the mass $M_G \sim 1.6 GeV$ and the size $R_G \sim 0.5 fm$.
Using simple and general arguments we propose an effective Hamiltonian for the description of low-energy pure QCD. The Hamiltonian is a function of spatially constant collective modes. Its eigenstates can be organized into bands classified by the irreducible representations of an O(8) group. The latter also determine parity and charge conjugation of the states. The energy spectrum agrees well with the glueball spectrum as measured on the lattice, and in particular the level ordering with respect to spin is naturally explained.
The $0^{++}$ glueball mass is analyzed in the QCD sum rules. We show that in order to determine the $0^{++}$ glueball mass by using the QCD sum rules method, it is necessary to clarify the following three ingredients: (1) to choose the appropriate moment with acceptable parameters which satisfy all of the criteria; (2) to take account into the radiative corrections; (3) to estimate an additional contribution to the glueball mass from the lowest lying ${\bar q}q$ resonance. We conclude that it is the key point to choose suitable moments to determine the $0^{++}$ glueball mass, the radiative corrections do not affect it sensitively and the composite resonance have a little effect onit.
We calculate the spectrum of glueball masses in non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in three and four dimensions, based on a conjectured duality between supergravity and large N gauge theories. The glueball masses are obtained by solving supergravity wave equations in a black hole geometry. We find that the mass ratios are in good numerical agreement with the available lattice data. We also compute the leading (g_{YM}^2 N)^{-1} corrections to the glueball masses, by taking into account stringy corrections to the supergravity action and to the black hole metric. We find that the corrections to the masses are negative and of order (g_{YM}^2N)^{-3/2}. Thus for a fixed ultraviolet cutoff the masses decrease as we decrease the 't Hooft coupling, in accordance with our expectation about the continuum limit of the gauge theories.
The mass of the lowest scalar glueball is discussed by using QCD sum rules. We find that the glueball mass is sensitive to the choice of moments and slightly depends on the radiative corrections. With the help of suitable moments and stability criteria, we get the scalar glueball mass: $1710\pm110$ MeV without radiative corrections and $1580\pm150$ MeV with radiative corrections.
We use a modified version of the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model which implements the QCD trace anomaly to calculate the two photons decay width of the glueball (f_0(1500)) and of the two scalar mesons (f_0(1370), f_{J=0}(1710)) to which it is mixed. We investigate the effect of this mixing over the coupling constants of the f_0 states to the quarks.
We study whether the pseudoscalar glueball mass in full QCD can differ from the prediction of quenched lattice calculations. Using properties of the correlator of the vacuum topological susceptibility we derive an expression for the upper bound on the QCD glueball mass. We show that the QCD pseudoscalar glueball is lighter than the pure Yang-Mills theory glueball studied in quenched lattice calculations. The mass difference between those two states is of order of $1/N_c$. The value calculated for the $0^{-+}$ QCD glueball mass can not be reconciled with any physical state observed so far in the corresponding channel. The glueball decay constant and its production rate in $J/\psi$ radiative decays are calculated. The production rate is large enough to be studied experimentally.
The mass of the glueballs is calculated in the B.S. equation framework. Under instantaneous approximation, the wave function of B.S. equations are obtained. The kernel is chosen as the sum of an one-gluon exchange potential, a contact interaction and a linear confining potential. The numerical results are in agreement with that of recent lattice calculation.
We use an analogy between the Yang-Mills theory Hamiltonian and the matrix model description of the closed bosonic membrane theory to calculate the spectrum of glueballs in the large $N_c$ limit. Some features of the Yang-Mills theory vacuum, such as the screening of the topological charge and vacuum topological susceptibility are discussed. We show that the topological susceptibility has different properties depending on whether it is calculated in the weak coupling or strong coupling regimes of the theory. A mechanism of the formation of the pseudoscalar glueball state within pure Yang-Mills theory is proposed and studied.
The widths of a glueball decay to two pions or kaons are analyzed in the pQCD framework. Our results show that the glueball ground state has small branching ratio for two-meson decay mode, which is around $10^{-2}$. The predicted values are consistent with the data of $\xi\to\pi\pi, KK$ if $\xi$ particle is a $2^{++}$ glueball. Applicability of pQCD to the glueball decay and comparison with $\chi_{cJ}$ decay are also discussed.
We calculate the masses of the $0^{++}$, $0^{--}$ and $1^{+-}$ glueballs from QCD in 3+1 dimensions using an eigenvalue equation method for Hamiltonian lattice QCD developed and described elsewhere by the authors. The mass ratios become approximately constants in the coupling region $6/g^2 \in [6.0,6.4]$, from which we estimate $M(0^{--})/M(0^{++})=2.44 \pm 0.05 \pm 0.20$ and $M(1^{+-})/M(0^{++})=1.91 \pm 0.05 \pm 0.12$.
We review the recent glueball mass calculations using an efficient method for solving the Schr\"odinger equation order by order with a scheme preserving the continuum limit. The reliability of the method is further supported by new accurate results for (1+1)-dimensional $\sigma$ models and (2+1)-dimensional non-abelian models. We present first and encouraging data for the glueball masses in 3+1 dimensional QCD.
Theoretical ideas related to the existence of glueballs in QCD are reviewed. These include non-perturbative phenomena such as confinement, instantons, vacuum condensates and renormalons. We also discuss glueball dominance of the trace of the stress-tensor, the mass content of the nucleon and a theorem on the lightest glueball state.
An approximate vacuum wave functional $\Psi_0$ is proposed for $2+1$-dimensional Yang-Mills theories. Using $\Psi_0$, one can compute the $0^{++}$ glueball mass $M_G$ in terms of the string tension. By using the idea of dimensional reduction, a prediction for $M_G$ can be made in $3+1$ dimensions. One finds $M_G \approx 1.5$ GeV.
A generalization of the chiral effective lagrangian of order $p^2$ is proposed which involves the $\eta'$-meson, its excitation, and the pseudoscalar (PS) glueball. Model-independent constraints are found for the contributions to the lagrangian of the above singlet states. Those allow one to independently identify the nature of these singlet states in the framework of the approach. The mixing among the iso-singlet states (including $\eta^8$-state) is analysed, and the hierarchy of the mixing angles is described which is defined by the chiral and large-$N_c$ expansions. The recent PCAC results are reproduced, which are related to the problem of the renormalization-group invariant description of the $\eta'$ and the PS glueball, and a further analysis of this problem is performed.
This paper is devoted to proving that, in QCD, the lightest glueball state must be the scalar with $J^{PC} = 0^{++}$. The proof relies upon the positivity of the path integral measure in Euclidean space and the fact that interpolating fields for all spins can be bounded by powers of the scalar glueball operator. The problem presented by the presence of vacuum condensates is circumvented by considering the time evolution of the propagators and exploiting the positivity of the Hamiltonian.
Using a non--relativistic gluon bound--state model for glueballs (G), we compute the subprocess $q\,\bar q\, \to\, G\,\pi$, and we therefrom derive the yield of the overall reaction $p\,\bar p\, \to\, G\,\pi X$, assuming the glueball and the pion to be emitted with their transverse momenta large, opposite and approximately equal. Numerical results are presented in the form of $p_T$ spectra for various glueball candidates and their possible quantum states, assuming those particles to be produced, in the type of reactions here considered, at high--energy $p\,\bar p$ colliders such as the CERN Sp\=pS.
A comprehensive, relativistic many-body approach to hadron structure is advanced based on the Coulomb gauge QCD Hamiltonian. Our method incorporates standard many-body techniques which render the approximations amenable to systematic improvement. Using BCS variational methods, dynamic chiral symmetry breaking naturally emerges and both quarks and gluons acquire constituent masses. Gluonia are studied both in the valence and in the collective, random phase approximations. Using representative values for the strong coupling constant and string tension, calculated quenched glueball masses are found to be in remarkable agreement with lattice gauge theory.
We obtain a heavy glueball (much heavier than the ones studied by others which usually are in the range of 1-2 GeV) in a bag model calculation with exact discrete single particle states of gluons at finite temperature. This heavy glueball, within the cosmological context, is what Abbas has recently predicted.
We show that a heavy glueball (much heavier than that studied by others which is in the range of 1-2 GeV) is generated in a pure gluon plasma when color-singletness condition is imposed on the partition function at finite temperature. This confirms Abbas's recent prediction (hep-ph/9504430) of the existence of a heavy glueball within the framework of the early universe scenario.
We introduce a new numerical technique to compute mass spectra, based on difference method and on a new gauge fixing procedure. We show that the method is very effective by test runs on a $SU(2)$ lattice gauge theory.
An effective chiral lagrangian of order $p^2$, describing the interaction of light pseudoscalar (PS) mesons with $\eta'$-meson and PS-glueball, has been determined taking into consideration the renorm-group requirements imposed by QCD renormalization. It is shown that the interpolating fields for the lowest singlet quarkic and gluonic states, $\eta^0$ and $\eta^G$, may be involved into the effective theory to be renorm-invariant objects not mixing due to QCD renormalization. It is established that the potential describing the ``mass'' term of the lagrangian does not depend on $\eta^0$. The dependence on $\eta^G$ is permitted only when there is not direct interaction between $\eta^0$ and $\eta^G$ out of the ``mass'' term without the octet fields contribution. The peculiarities distinguishing the glueball from excitation over $\eta^0$ have been considered.
We discuss how to extract the spectroscopy of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in the pure gauge sector from the Hamiltonian lattice field theory approach. The recently developed truncated eigenvalue equation method is applied to the estimation of the scalar glueball $0^{++}$ and $0^{--}$ masses in the (2+1)-dimensional case. These masses reach the constant values in a scaling region as required by the renormalizability.
We describe a nonperturbative calculation of the spectrum of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory based on a Hamiltonian formulation. Our approach exploits gauge invariant variables similar to those used in nuclear physics to describe collective motion in nuclei.
We consider (1+1)-dimensional QCD coupled to scalars in the adjoint representation of the gauge group SU($N$). This model results from dimensional reduction of the (2+1)-dimensional pure glue theory. In the large-$N$ limit we study the spectrum of glueballs numerically, using the discretized \lcq. We find a discrete spectrum of bound states, with the density of levels growing approximately exponentially with the mass. A few low-lying states are very close to being eigenstates of the parton number, and their masses can be accurately calculated by truncated diagonalizations.
We here compute the reaction $ \gamma \; \gamma \rightarrow G \; \pi^{0} $ for various glueball candidates $ G $ and their assumed quantum states, using a non-relativistic gluon bound-state model for the glueball.